papi酱、吴亦凡、姚晨,中国的“意见领袖”和网红都是怎么赚大钱的? | 双语阅读

FT每日英语 2019-07-05 16:44:49

我们来认识一下中国的“关键意见领袖”(KOL)。


KOL(Key Opinion Leader),通常指那些在微博等社交媒体平台具有很大话语权,常常有掀起、引导舆论力量的一群人。


中国有KOL,国外也有,但中国的KOL们在一点上,做得比他们国外的同行要好。




Gogoboi spent a month wearing outfits matching Pokémon characters. Yao Chen — China’s answer to Angelina Jolie — hangs out with refugees. Papi Jiang swears way too much.

Gogoboi(中国著名时尚博主)在一个月时间里一直穿着与《口袋妖怪》(Pokémon)的角色相配的服装。与安吉丽娜•朱丽(Angelina Jolie)一样,也担任联合国难民署亲善大使的姚晨与难民在一起。papi酱(本名姜逸磊)脏话连篇。


Photo Credit: FT中文网


让我们来认识一下中国的“关键意见领袖”(KOL)。


Like America’s YouTube stars, they are a diverse bunch who range from the girl next door to renowned actors. They boast millions of followers — 80m in actress Yao Chen’s case — and some have, like their US peers, come badly unstuck. But in one respect they have trumped the celebrities of the west: monetising their lives.

与美国的YouTube上的明星一样,他们是一个多样化的群体,从邻家女孩到知名演员都有。他们号称有数百万粉丝——女演员姚晨有8000万粉丝——与美国同行一样,也有一些人搞得一败涂地。但他们有一点比西方的名人强:他们将生活“货币化了”。


全球性营销咨询公司——胜三管理咨询(R3)的负责人格雷格•保罗(Greg Paull)表示:


More than any other country, [KOLs] have taken the lead to be a true media vehicle. Much like you would use a TV campaign or other promotion, most marketers in China have a KOL strategy.

领先于其他所有国家,中国关键意见领袖已经率先成为一种真正的媒介载体。你们很多人会使用电视广告或者其他宣传方式,而在中国,大多数营销者还有关键意见领袖策略。


Photo Credit: Getty Images


在中国,从洗发水和巧克力等商品的制造商如联合利华(Unilever),到包括博柏利(Burberry)和古驰(Gucci)在内的设计师手袋供应商,都竞相利用这些有影响力的人士来宣传它们的商品。这导致了一些不同寻常的合作:


Watchmaker Jaeger-LeCoultre saw its brand awareness, as measured by the Baidu Index, more than double, after running a campaign with girl-next-door vlogger Papi Jiang. Actor Kris Wu has boosted sales for designers Bulgari and Burberry.

在请邻家女孩型的视频博客主papi酱拍了一支广告后,手表制造商积家(Jaeger-LeCoultre)的品牌知名度按百度指数(Baidu Index)衡量增长了一倍多。演员吴亦凡(Kris Wu)提升了宝格丽(Bulgari)和博柏利的产品销量。


Photo Credit: Getty Images


许多青少年偶像被浪琴(Longines)和蒂芙尼(Tiffany)等奢侈品品牌(luxury brands)招募来吸引年轻买家,papi酱和吴亦凡就是其中两位。广告公司表示:


As multinationals latch on to KOLs as a means of selling goods to aspirational Chinese consumers, the paychecks they command are rising. Jaeger-LeCoultre paid “at least” Rmb5m ($731,000) for Ms Jiang’s 30-second video, estimates Kevin Gentle of Madjor, a digital branding agency.

随着跨国公司将聘请关键意见领袖作为向中国渴望成功的消费者销售商品的手段,这些人要求的酬劳日益上升。据数字品牌公司Madjor的凯文•金特尔(Kevin Gentle)估计,积家为papi酱的30秒视频“至少”支付了500万元人民币(合74.1万美元)。


但这样的合作,效果也是巨大的。


 Actress Yang Mi shared her birthday party, thrown by designer Michael Kors in a New York hotel, with her 72m followers on microblogging and livestreaming site Weibo — generating more than 12m comments and likes, according to digital agency L2.

据数字机构L2表示,女演员杨幂曾在微博客和直播网站——微博(Weibo)上向7200万粉丝分享设计师迈克•柯尔斯(Michael Kors)在纽约一家酒店为其举办的生日晚会,产生了逾1200万条评论和点赞。


Photo Credit: Getty Images


一个从关键意见领袖的兴起中获利(profite)的完整行业已经形成,这是一个中国特有的发展。尽管西方的YouTube用户们也能够通过上传吃奥利奥(Oreo)饼干或者穿设计师衣服的视频赚钱,但中国的关键意见领袖还可以直接赚钱。


On top of advertising dollars, they make money from fans who can send virtual gifts and cash online, as well as paid endorsements and sponsorships — such as jeweller De Beers, which sponsored the wedding of celeb couple Liu Shishi and Wu Qilong.

除了通过广告赚钱以外,他们还可以从粉丝发送虚拟礼物和在线打赏中赚钱,此外还可以有偿代言和获得赞助,比如珠宝商戴比尔斯(De Beers)为刘诗诗和吴奇隆的婚礼提供了赞助。


Photo Credit: Getty Images


一些最著名的关键意见领袖甚至自身成为了投资工具(investment vehicles):


Ms Jiang, before China’s regulators took issue with her swearing, raised just shy of $2m from venture capital investment into her company. SNH48, a funky girl band as well known for engaging with fans online as for their fishnet tights and distressed shorts, helped secure a $150m investment for their media group, Star48 Culture and Media Group, last month.

在中国监管机构要求其整改脏话之前,papi酱的公司获得了近200万美元的风险资本投资。SNH48是一个由时髦女孩组成的乐队,她们以与粉丝在线互动以及穿着渔网丝袜和超短裤出名。该乐队上月帮助其媒体集团丝芭文化传媒公司(Star48 Culture and Media Group)获得了1.5亿美元的投资。


第一财经商业数据中心(CBNData)估计,2016年关键意见领袖产业的经济产值达到580亿元人民币,超过了2015年的电影票房总收入。Consultancy Analysis预计明年的收入规模将达到1000亿元人民币。


Microbloggers on Weibo — which has overtaken US peer Twitter, in terms of both market capitalisation and subscriber numbers — had pulled in $1.7bn by October last year, according to Xinhua.

数据显示,去年前10月,微博作者获得收入约17亿美元。就市值和用户数量而言,微博已超过了美国的Twitter。


Photo Credit: Getty Images


关键意见领袖将他们的兴起归功于直播行业(livestreaming)日益繁荣。但短视频(short-form videos)的发展为这一行业注入了新的生命力,尤其是对制作自有内容(如时装秀的幕后花絮(behind-the-scenes footage))的广告主而言。



Like YouTube, China’s tech trinity of Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent all have video streaming platforms. But it is those targeting shorter-form video, such as Weibo, dating app and livestreaming player Momo, and social platform YY, that are attracting the most attention from advertisers.

与YouTube一样,中国科技三巨头百度(Baidu)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和腾讯(Tencent)全都拥有视频直播平台。但微博、约会APP和直播平台陌陌(Momo)以及社交平台YY等有针对性的短视频最受广告主关注。


但这一行业发展迅速。市场研究咨询公司Frost & Sullivan的数据显示,如今市场上的直播应用超过200种,拥有逾2亿注册用户。


Photo Credit: FT中文网


消费研究公司Bomoda联合创始人兼首席执行官布莱恩•布赫瓦尔德(Brian Buchwald)表示:


A lot of platforms have a greater level of interactivity between the KOL and the watcher. They encourage live engagement . . . with the KOLs.

许多平台上关键意见领袖与观众之间有更高的互动水平,他们鼓励与关键意见领袖……现场互动。


然而,麦肯锡(McKinsey)大中华区管理合伙人倪以理(Joe Ngai)表示,观众往往对平台无所谓,“他们追的是人,而非平台”。


布赫瓦尔德表示:


We have clients who move all of their advertising online and KOL endorsement is the primary driver outside of Baidu search. They are trying to put as much money into KOLs as they can.

我们有些客户将所有广告活动都转到了网上,关键意见领袖的宣传是百度搜索以外主要的推动因素。他们正努力在关键意见领袖身上投入尽可能多的资金。







你最关注的是哪位KOL?



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